ISO Constraints

From Federation of Earth Science Information Partners
Revision as of 12:22, December 2, 2016 by Ted.Habermann (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
MD_Constraints

ISO 19115 supports the description of constraints on resources and metadata using the MD_Constraints object (see Figure). This object describes limitations on the fitness of use of the resource, use and access constraints, and security classification. Each of these elements have different implications. The definitions are:

useLimitation limitation affecting the fitness for use of the resource or metadata. Example, “not to be used for navigation"
constraintApplicationScope spatial and/or temporal extent and or

level of the application of the constraint

restrictions
graphic graphic /symbol indicating the constraint
reference citation for the limitation or constraint EXAMPLE Copyright statement, licence agreement, etc.
releasability information concerning the parties to whom the resource can or cannot be released
responsibleParty party responsible for the resource constraints
accessConstraints access constraints applied to assure the protection of privacy or intellectual property, and any special restrictions or limitations on obtaining the resource or metadata
useConstraints constraints applied to assure the protection of privacy or intellectual property, and any special restrictions or limitations or warnings on using the resource or metadata
MD_SecurityConstraints handling restrictions imposed on the resource or metadata for national security or similar security concerns. These elements are straight forward and different than the others and are not discussed further (for security reasons!).

The principle difference between these elements is that useLimitations is related to characteristics of the resource, how it was collected, or how it was processed that might make it inappropriate for some specific use, e.g. navigation. In contrast, the use and access constraints (i.e. the MD_LegalConstraints) are imposed on the resource by organizations that collect or distribute the data.

The useConstraints and accessConstraints elements are codes that can take any of the values in the MD_RestrictionCode code list (copyright, patent, patentPending, trademark, license, intellectualPropertyRights, restricted, otherRestrictions). The MD_Constraints object includes a constraint that states that otherConstraints must be documented if either useConstraints or accessConstraints have the value "otherConstraints". It does not, however, require useConstraints or accessConstraints if otherConstraints is populated.

Notes

The Marine Community Profile extended the definition of MD_Constraints in ISO 19115 in order to add fields they required for more detailed descriptions of constraints. These extensions were added in the revision to ISO 19115-1:

jurisdictionLink : URL -----------------------------------------> responsibleParty 
licenseLink : URL -----------------------------------------------> reference
imageLink : URL ------------------------------------------------> graphic
licenseName : CharacterString -----------------------------> reference
attributionConstraints : CharacterString -----------------> reference

XML Implementation:
<gmd:metadataConstraints>
    <mcp:MD_Commons mcp:commonsType="Creative Commons" gco:isoType="gmd:MD_Constraints">
      <mcp:jurisdictionLink>
        <gmd:URL>http://creativecommons.org/international/au/</gmd:URL>
      </mcp:jurisdictionLink>
      <mcp:licenseLink>
        <gmd:URL>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/</gmd:URL>
      </mcp:licenseLink>
      <mcp:imageLink>
        <gmd:URL>http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/3.0/au/88x31.png</gmd:URL>
      </mcp:imageLink>
      <mcp:licenseName>
        <gco:CharacterString>Attribution 3.0 Australia</gco:CharacterString>
      </mcp:licenseName>
    </mcp:MD_Commons>
 </gmd:metadataConstraints>

Examples

A general NOAA Disclaimer: This disclaimer states that NOAA has done everything possible to make sure that this resource is accurate, but that unforeseen errors or omissions might cause problems in some situations. The resource is freely accessible and use of the data are not restricted, i.e. there are no MD_LegalConstraints.

<gmd:resourceConstraints>
    <gmd:MD_Constraints>
        <gmd:useLimitation>
            <gco:CharacterString>Disclaimer - While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are 
            accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any 
            damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to 
            function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact 
            of distribution constitute such a warranty.</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:useLimitation>
    </gmd:MD_Constraints>
</gmd:resourceConstraints>

A similar statement for bathymetry data with a link to resources appropriate for navigation:

<gmd:resourceConstraints>
    <gmd:MD_Constraints>
        <gmd:useLimitation>
            <gco:CharacterString>The intent of these data is to make high-resolution bathymetry available to the public for a 
                wide variety of uses such as research and earth science analysis.  These data are not intended to be used for navigation.  
                Nautical charts produced and certified by NOAA should be used for navigational purposes.  For more information on NOAA"s 
                nautical charts go to NOAA"s Office of Coast Survey website at: http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/.</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:useLimitation>
    </gmd:MD_Constraints>
</gmd:resourceConstraints>

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) uses several sets of codes for classifying data that have implied access and use constraints. For example, 'WMO Essential' data are to be exchanged with WMO members and the public all over the world without charge and with no conditions on use, i.e. with no access or use constraints. Resources in this category could be described minimally as:

<gmd:resourceConstraints>
    <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
        <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gco:CharacterString>WMO Essential</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:otherConstraints>
    </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
</gmd:resourceConstraints>

and the code associated with a given resource could be identified using the xPath: //gmd:otherConstraints/gco:CharacterString. The code would be found by someone that knew the content was in that specific element. However, it would be missed by a user or application asking the question in a slightly different way (i.e. are their access or use constraints on this resource?) using the xPaths //gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:accessConstraints/gmd:MD_RestrictionCode or //gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:useConstraints/gmd:MD_RestrictionCode. This could be avoided using:

<gmd:resourceConstraints>
    <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
        <gmd:accessConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode codeList="http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/metadata/published/xsd/schema/resources/
            Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode" codeListValue="otherRestrictions">otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
        </gmd:accessConstraints>
        <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode codeList="http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/metadata/published/xsd/schema/resources/
            Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode" codeListValue="otherRestrictions">otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
        </gmd:useConstraints>
        <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gco:CharacterString>WMO Essential</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:otherConstraints>
    </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
</gmd:resourceConstraints>

which states that this resource is of type "WMO Essential" and has associated use and access constraints. This approach may also be appropriate for the category "WMO Additional" that is used for meteorological and related data and products on which WMO members place conditions related to their re-export for commercial purposes outside the receiving country (or group of countries forming a single economic group). The code "WMO Additional" indicates that the resource has some special use and access constraints:

<gmd:resourceConstraints>
    <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
        <gmd:accessConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode codeList="http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/metadata/published/xsd/schema/resources/
            Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode" codeListValue="otherRestrictions">otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
        </gmd:accessConstraints>
        <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode codeList="http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/metadata/published/xsd/schema/resources/
            Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode" codeListValue="otherRestrictions">otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
        </gmd:useConstraints>
        <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gco:CharacterString>WMO Additional</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:otherConstraints>
    </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
</gmd:resourceConstraints>