Scheffe: CENRDraft

From Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP)

CENR draft version1 Measurements

Perspectives on Measurement Systems

1.0 Introduction

2.1 Atmospheric systems

2.1.1: Major Routine United States and Canadian Operating Air Monitoring Networks

2.1.2: Intensive Field Campaigns

2.1.3: Air Monitoring Networks for Climate Forcing, Transport, and Stratospheric Ozone

2.1.4: Observation Systems Providing Vertical Profile Information

2.1.5: National Routine Meteorological Monitoring Networks

2.1.6: Satellite–Based Air Quality Observing Systems

2.1.7: Surface water and soil/sediment measurement programs

2.1.8: European Air Monitoring Networks

2.1.9: Monitoring Networks for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

3.0 Measurement Gaps to Support Integrated Assessments.

3.1 Multiple Pollutant Coverage.

3.1.1 Inhalable Hazardous Air Pollutants.

3.1.2 Mercury

3.2 Spatial and temporal scale considerations

3.3 Measurements Gaps in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems.

3.4 Recommendations for intensive field programs

3.5 Data gaps in exposure and health effects information.

3.6 Integration across accountability indicators.

3.7 Merging observational systems and predictive models.

3.8 Strategies and Information Technology solutions

1.0 Introduction

Observations of physical, chemical and biological properties of airborne, terrestrial and aquatic systems form the basis for environmental assessments. Measurement systems typically are developed to meet fairly specific objectives along programmatic lines. Examples include tracking trends of acidy and acid neutralizing capacity through the surface water Time/LTM networks, determining compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the State and Local Air Monitoring Networks (SLAMs) and establishing visibility baselines and associated progress in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. Observations serve multiple purposes beyond a programs primary objective there are a number of common threads inherent in most observation systems. These commonalities include characterizing current environmental state, parameterizing physical/chemical processes, tracking change (trends) of environmental conditions, developing causality associations between observations and responses, providing inputs to and evaluation data for models. These common threads enable the data user community to weave together information from disparate networks to service numerous applications, despite recognized spatial, temporal and compositional gaps instrument induced artifacts. Recognizing both synergisms among networks as well as inherent limitations, what is the capacity of the current state of observational systems to address the central themes of accountability, multiple pollutants and multiple media linkages.

In addressing the issue of how well suited our observation programs are in addressing challenges nposed by the NAS report, this chapter will provide a broad overview of existing (and planned) observational platforms and campaigns in North America focused primarily on atmospheric measurements and including aquatic and terrestrial (soil and sediment) chemistry measurement programs. Programs addressing biological responses relevant to ecosystem and human health effects are addressed in the health effects and ecosystem chapters. This broad inventorying effort is intended to identify areas of opportunity and information gaps to foster integration across pollutant categories, environmental media and throughout the source to effects indicators continuum. The following questions are considered throughout this chapter:

1. What observations are in place (or planned) to support multiple pollutant – multiple media air quality management practice in North America? What else is recommended?

2. What observation systems and needs facilitate linkages across the following indicator categories:

a. Source emissions – ambient air

b. Ambient air – human exposure inhalation

c. Ambient air – deposition to aquatic and terrestrial systems

d. Deposition – aquatic and terrestrial chemistr